Painting Tips – Exterior

Alligatoring

AlligatorALLIGATORING . . . many wide patterned cracks in the paint film with the appearance

alligator scales.

ALLIGATORING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . usually multiple coats of naturally aged oil based paints that have become brittle and start cracking. Topcoat’s inability to bond smoothly to a glossy undercoat. Insufficient drying time between coats. A hard coating over a soft primer.

ALLIGATORING SOLUTIONS . . . remove all of the old paint by scraping and sanding. A power washer is recommended for large areas to shorten the removal time. The best way to avoid future alligatoring is to properly prepare the surface and paint with a high quality primer/finish coat.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming is essential for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Blistering

BlisteringBLISTERING . . . dome shaped paint bubbles indicating loss of adhesion. Can occur in isolation or groups.

BLISTERING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . trapped moisture trying to escape through the paint, painting at temperatures above 90ºF. Using oil paints on wet/damp surfaces. High humidity,

such as rain or heavy dew before the paint dries. Painting a warm surface in direct sunlight, or application over heavy chalk.

BLISTERING SOLUTION . . . find and remove the sources of moisture. Control moisture with adequate venting, stopping leaks and acrylic caulking. Remove all of the blistered areas and other loose paint by scraping and sanding. Power washing recommended for large areas.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming is essential for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Chalking

ChalkingCHALKING . . . excessive and heavy powdering. Paints chalk naturally somewhat over exposure to sun and weather.

CHALKING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . usually due to natural weathering. Paints using excessive clay in place of titanium dioxide. Interior paints being used for exterior surfaces. Over thinning or spreading too thinly. Wrong product selection.

CHALKING SOLUTIONS . . . remove all of the chalk dust with a stiff bristle brush (wire on masonry) and rinse thoroughly with a garden hose with high water pressure. For best and quickest results,use a power washer. If some chalk residue still remains, a chalk binder coat is required.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . A penetrating primer is essential to seal off any remaining chalk. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Checking / Flaking

Checking_flakingCHECKING/FLAKING . . . aging, dried paint starts with hairline cracks. Eventually cracking the surface.

CHECKING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . poor surface prep. Applying paint too thin. Loss of elasticity, not expanding or contracting with humidity and temperature. As wood swells, stress breaks the bond between layers and checks form. Checking on unprotected wood is due to delamination.

CHECKING SOLUTIONS . . . remove all loose paint with a scraper, wire brush or power washing for large areas. Feather sand edges. Level uneven areas with exterior spackle, sand and rinse with a garden hose to remove all dust particles.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming is essential for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Dirt Staining

DIRT STAINING . . . excessive collection of dirt and other debris. Sometimes mistaken for mildew.Dirt_staining

DIRT STAINING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . usually a combination of air pollution and flying dust. Coarse flat finishes are particularly vulnerable to dirt penetration and staining. The life and beauty of exterior paints may be extended by properly washing as needed.

DIRT STAINING SOLUTIONS . . . wash off all loose dirt and other particles before repainting. Use a scrub brush and a detergent solution with household bleach (1 part bleach/3 parts water) to also kill mildew if present. Power washing recommended for speed. Rinse to remove all loose particles.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . .Priming is essential for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Efflorescence

EfflorescenceEFFLORESCENCE . . . crusty, white salt deposits leached from masonry or mortar as moisture passes through.

EFFLORESCENCE CAUSES . . . excessive moisture. Inadequate venting of interior moisture laden areas. The pH level too high or the lack of curing time. Excessive lime in concrete mix. Soluble salts in masonry when dissolved by water appear on the surface as crystallized salts.

EFFLORESCENCE SOLUTIONS . . . requires the elimination of moisture sources. Remove all loose paint and other particles with a wire or stiff brush before repainting. Fill all cracks with a masonry patching compound. Repair any leaks or other moisture sources.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Masonry primer/sealer is essential and must dry completely before repainting. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Fading / Color Retention

FADING . . . early loss of color or change usually from direct sun exposure. More with yellows Fadingand reds.

FADING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . using an interior grade or a lightly pigmented paint leading to rapid degradation. Using a color that isn’t light fast. Tinting white paint not intended for tinting. Overtinting. All colors will fade somewhat over a long duration.

FADING SOLUTIONS . . . remove all loose paint and other particles with a wire brush before repainting. All chalking must be removed, see chalking, page 4. Rinse thoroughly with a garden hose. For the best and quickest results, use a power washer.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming is essential for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Frosting

FROSTING . . . salty looking discoloration, most visible on darker colors, sometimes for efflorescenFrostingce.

FROSTING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . usually forms in protected areas not receiving cleaning rains. Dark colors over paint or primer using excessive extender pigments. Mistaken for efflorescence.

FROSTING SOLUTIONS . . . remove frosting with a wire brush on masonry and sanding on wood. Rinse thoroughly with a garden hose. For best and quickest results, use a power washer. Frosting often will bleed through new paint if an alkyd-based primer isn’t used.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . An alkyd primer is essential to avoid a reoccurrence of bleeding through the new finish coat only. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Gloss Retention

Gloss_lossGLOSS LOSS . . . an accelerated deterioration of the top coat causing rapid luster loss.

GLOSS LOSS PROBABLE CAUSES . . . usually the use of gloss alkyd or oil based paint exposed directly to the sun. Thin or inadequate paint film. Paint colors such as oranges, reds and yellows that are particularly vulnerable to UV radiation. All paints lose some luster over time.

GLOSS RETENTION SOLUTIONS . . . use top quality UV resistant exterior paints. Acrylic glosses last much longer than oil or alkyd based paints. Remove all loose paint, dust and other particles. Rinse thoroughly with a hose. For best and quickest results, use a power washer.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Spot prime all bare areas. Also refer to Chalking Solutions page 4. Select a top quality exterior gloss paint in the color of your choice.

Lapping

LappingLAPPING . . . occurs where wet and dry layers overlap during painting. Avoid with paint area management and technique.

LAPPING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . wet and dry layers overlapping. Too much heat or wind during application. Inadequate stirring and improper thinning. Extremely porous surface. Painting too large an area at one time, such as trying to go from the top to the bottom.

LAPPING SOLUTIONS . . . another coat of paint evenly spread usually will cover lap marks. If the finish coat is relatively transparent or if the surface is overly porous, a primer or second coat may be necessary. Always paint from wet to dry and in small sections to keep a wet edge.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Extremely porous painted or unpainted surfaces need a primer/sealer coat before a new top coat. Select a top quality finish in the color and sheen of your choice.

Leaching (Surfactant)

Surfacant_leachingSURFACTANT LEACHING . . . blotchy usually tan colored glossy water soluble spots on paints.

LEACHING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . painting in cool humid conditions or just prior to their occurrence, such as late afternoon or just before or just after rain. If moisture from any source collects on fresh paint before it has thoroughly dried, leaching may appear.

LEACHING SOLUTIONS . . . no painting if temperatures are below 50° F or late PM when it’s cooler. Coolness extends drying. Surfactants that usually evaporate, rise to the surface. The residue disappears from weathering in about a month and doesn’t harm the paint. It is best is to let nature take its course, but rinsing sometimes will easily remove the residue. Leaching cures itself in a little time.

SURFACTANTS . . . are necessary to a paint formula. They evaporate and never are a part of the dried paint. Slow drying due to coolness or humidity, prevents the surfactants from evaporating and a blotchy sometimes glossy residue appears.

Mildew

MildewMILDEW . . . areas of black, gray, brown spots formed on paint and other surfaces, particularly in damp, shady areas.

MILDEW PROBABLE CAUSES . . . warm, humid conditions, poor air circulation and little direct sunlight, like under eaves and overhangs. Shrubbery planted too close to a building is an ideal place for mildew to grow. Mildew must be removed before painting or it will come through the new paint.

MILDEW SOLUTIONS . . . remove all mildew by scrubbing with a solution of household bleach and water. Mix 1 part bleach to 3 parts water.Wear rubber gloves and eye protection. Power washing is recommended for larger areas. Rinse thoroughly with a garden hose.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming is essential for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice containing mildewcidal protection.

Nailhead Rusting

Nail_rustingNAILHEAD RUSTING . . . rust spots come through the paint. Preventable with proper preparation and priming.

RUST STAINS PROBABLE CAUSES . . . improper surface preparation. Use of nails not protected against rusting. Failure to countersink,and apply rust inhibitive primer. Painting over rusty nailheads, in a short time the rust will bleed through again.

NAILHEAD RUSTING SOLUTIONS . . . countersink the nails, spot prime and use acrylic caulk. Rust spots will reappear if you or other rusting metals without prescribed preventative measures. Specify galvanized, aluminum or stainless steel nails.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming and proper surface preparation are essential with a corrosion resistant primer. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Paint Incompatibility

IncompatibilityINCOMPATIBILITY . . . causing adhesion loss from a top coat of latex over many layers of alkyd or oil based paint.

INCOMPATIBILITY CAUSES . . . usually caused by painting over 3 or more layers of alkyd or oil based paint with a latex top coat. The old paint has become brittle and will lift off the surface. Inadequate surface preparation. Using a not recommended top coat.

PAINT INCOMPATIBILITY SOLUTIONS . . . remove all the loose paint by scraping or wire brush for masonry. Power washing is recommended for large areas. Feather sand edges for smooth appearance and rinse thoroughly with a hose. All bare areas will need spot priming.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming is essential for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Peeling: Galvanized Metal

Galvanized_metalGALVANIZED METAL PEELING . . . is an adhesion loss of the paint due to inadequate preparation.

PEELING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . usually no or improper priming. Improper surface prep or choice of paint. Not removing rust, oil and other matter. Not deglossing baked enamel finishes. Painting too soon after cleaning galvanized surface. Galvanized metal is very alkaline until weathered.

GALVANIZED METAL SOLUTIONS . . . remove all rust, loose paint and other particles. All dust must be rinsed or wiped away. Allow galvanized to weather prior to coating. Apply an acrylic corrosion-resistant primer. New galvanized must be primed with an acrylic corrosion- resistant primer if the finish coat is oil base or vinyl latex.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Bare or new galvanized metal needs agressive cleaning with mineral spirits prior to using a galvanized primer. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Peeling: Hardboard / Wood

PeelingPEELING . . . paint adhesion is lost and the loose paint starts coming off in single to multiple coats.

PEELING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . moisture trying to escape through the paint film. This is more common with oil based paints. Moisture leaks from roofs, walls, uncaulked or dried-out caulked joints. Painting over a wet surface with alkyd or oil based paint. Inadequate surface preparation.

PEELING SOLUTIONS . . . identify and eliminate the cause of moisture. Long term satisfaction is assured when moisture is controlled. Remove all loose paint by scraping. Power washing is recommended for large areas. Feather sand edges for smooth appearance and rinse thoroughly with a hose.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Spot prime all bare areas for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Under Eaves Peeling

Intercoat_peelingINTERCOAT PEELING . . . occurs in protected or shady areas where condensation collects sulfur dioxide from air. These salt like crystals are washed away by rain in areas not protected. Painting over these crystals will cause peeling as the salts draws moisture through the paint.

PEELING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . improper surface preparation to painted surfaces located in areas protected from weather. Condensation causing a collection of salt crystals from the air. If salt deposits aren’t removed, new paint will peel. Lack of adhesion of a top coat over a hard, shinny surface.

INTERCOAT PEELING SOLUTIONS . . . wash and rinse thoroughly before repainting. When dry, remove all loose paint with a scraper or wire brush. Sand all glossy areas and remove sanding dust. Remove mildew if present. Mix 1 part bleach with 3 parts water.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming is essential for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in your color and sheen.

Peeling: Masonary / Metal

Peeling_mansorymetalPEELING . . . paint adhesion is lost and the loose paint starts coming off in single to multiple coats.

PEELING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . usually improper surface prep and not identifying the conditions that need pre-painting attention. Uncontrolled moisture conditions, painting over rust, loose paint, chalking paint or dusty surfaces.

MASONRY PEELING SOLUTIONS . . . remove all the loose paint with a wire brush. Power washing or sand blasting is recommended for large areas. Fill all cracks with a masonry patching compound. Use an alkali-resistant primer.

METAL PEELING SOLUTIONS . . . remove all loose paint and rust. Apply a rust conversion or rust inhibitive primer. Lightly sand factory primed metal and remove dust.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Spot prime all bare areas for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Resisting Alkali

Alkali_resistanceNO ALKALI RESISTANCE . . . results are color loss and complete deterioration of the paint on fresh masonry.

ALKALI PROBABLE CAUSES . . . poor surface preparation. Painting a new high alkalinity masonry surface before it has cured a minimum of 30 days. Full curing takes a year. No primer or using an improper primer. A top coat of oil base or vinyl latex without a primer.

ALKALI SOLUTIONS . . . allow new masonry surfaces at least 30 days of curing to avoid color loss and paint film deterioration on fresh masonry. Use an alkali resistant primer. Repainting requires the same preparation as Efflorescence, page 7.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming is critical. An alkali-resistant primer must be used on fresh, uncured masonry surfaces. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Tannin Wood Staining

Tannin_woodstainTANNIN WOOD STAINING . . . brownish discoloration that will come through prime/finish coats unless properly primed.

WOOD STAINING CAUSES . . .Tannin escaping moisture and primers that don’t block staining. The brownish stains are likely to come from redwood, cedar, mahogany and knots without priming. Severe staining may require more than 1 primer coat. Staining is more visible on light colors.

TANNIN STAINING SOLUTIONS . . . locate and correct moisture sources. Wash with a commercial grade bleach solution, rinse thoroughly and allow to dry 48 hours minimum. Severe staining needs 2 coats or more of a stain-blocking primer. Cedar and redwood always require a stain-blocking primer.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming is critical. Stain will bleed through multiple top coats without proper priming. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

Wax Bleeding

Wax_bleedinngWAX BLEEDING . . . migration of waxy additives used in reconstituted wood products to the surface causing discoloration and possible wetting.

PROBABLE CAUSES . . . exposing the hardboard to weather too long before painting. Not priming or using an improper primer. Dark colors are more prone to wax bleeding because of heat absorption. Inadequate paint film thickness. Flat paints are more likely to wax bleed.

WAX BLEEDING SOLUTIONS . . . prevent the wax used in hardboard manufacturing from bleeding by painting new hardboard within 30 days. Hardboard siding needs 3 coats: primer and 2 finish coats. Use a recommended primer before repainting. Wax bleeding avoidance reduces dirt adherence.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Priming is critical for preventing wax bleeding. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color/sheen of your choice.

Wrinkling

WrinklingWRINKLING . . . improper paint application (usually too thick) can cause paint to have crinkled surface.

WRINKLING PROBABLE CAUSES . . . usually  occurs when there is interference with normal drying, such as: applying too much paint, applying second coat too soon, uncured paint exposure to excessive moisture conditions, painting when it is too hot or cold and painting over un-sanded glossy surfaces.

WRINKLING SOLUTIONS . . . remove wrinkled areas and other loose paint. Aged wrinkled areas may require chemical paint removers.Wear safety gear as directed. Sandn until smooth. Remove dust. Apply at recommended spread rates. Avoid extreme temperatures: Below 50° F and above 100° F.

PRIMERS & EXTERIOR FINISHES . . . Spot prime all bare areas for better adhesion, sheen uniformity, mildew control and durability. Select a top quality exterior paint in the color and sheen of your choice.

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